Serverless CI/CD

CI/CD workflows smooth and simplify the development process. In this guide, learn how to setup a format that works well for an individual or a team of Serverless devs.

About Serverless CI/CD

Serverless CI/CD is a service built into Serverless Framework Pro. Like traditional CI/CD services, you can use it to run tests and deploy Serverless Framework services. Unlike traditional CI/CD services, Serverless CI/CD is optimized for serverless architectures and requires little configuration.

You can get started with the free tier of Serverless Framework Pro, which includes everything you need to run Serverless CI/CD and one concurrent build for Serverless CI/CD.

Signup for a free Serverless Framework Pro account here


These are the things we want from our CI/CD Workflow:

  • Break Up Your Apps - Always seek to break up your Application into smaller Services, to safely separate the cloud resources they contain. This way, we're not risking the entire Application if the deployment of a Service should fail or fall into an erroneous state, and we're not making a monolith that is hard to approach, collaborate on and maintain. When determining how to separate your Services, seek to generally group cloud resources by their business domain while specifically separating cloud resources that you deploy often (e.g. code, functions) from resources that should be deployed infrequently and cautiously (e.g. databases, VPCs)
  • Autonomy & Sharing - The developers must be able to work on features separately from the entire application, so they can work fast due to the increased autonomy. At the same time, most serverless and cloud architectures consist of many shared resources. Therefore, our developers must also be able to interact with other resources (e.g. a database, auth, VPC) without too much friction.
  • Develop and Review In The Cloud - Encourage developers to work in the real cloud environment as much as possible, to ensure they understand the performance and limitations of their cloud services and experience what end-users will experience.. Developers should deploy and test before committing their changes to git and pull request reviewers should be reviewing the end-user experience in a real cloud environment. They can use offline when they feel the need, but the workflow should make it easy for developers to do the majority of their work in the cloud, without getting blocked or colliding their infrastructure.
  • Traditional Staging Production - A traditional Staging copy of the Application and a traditional Production copy of the Application, that are separate from all development. Staging will be for testing and feedback, and Production will be for end-users.

Solution overview

We'll dive into all the details of the entire workflow end to end, but before we do, let's have a look at a high level how we will address the requirements listed above.

  • We'll Break Up our Apps with an example application, the workshop full-stack app, which consists of four Serverless Framework Services. The Services are organized in different sub directories of the same repository and application. These services are organized per the recommendations for organizing your
repos, apps, and services.
  • Enable Autonomy and Sharing by breaking up the shared resources from the other resources per the recommendations for organizing your repos, apps, and services. These Services can be worked on and deployed independently of the shared resources, enabling developers to frequently deploy from the CLI. They'll be able to share resources across Services using outputs without having to redeploy their dependent shared services.
  • Enable developers to Develop and Review In The Cloud by deploying from the CLI before committing their changes. Using Serverless CI/CD we'll be able to automatically create preview deployments of the changes in our pull requests. This enables the reviewers to use a preview instance of the service from the pull request. Once reviewed, these preview deployments will be cleaned up automatically.
  • Traditional Staging C Production steps are included as the last two steps of the four-step workflow. Using Serverless CI/CD changes to the master branch are automatically deployed to the staging environment. Once reviewed, they can be promoted and rolled back from staging to production using a git workflow. We encourage frequent but small deployments to production using feature flagging to decouple deployments from releases.

Example application - workshop full-stack app

To illustrate the four steps of the CI/CD workflow and the related concepts, we'll use the workshop full-stack application as an example. The workshop app is open source and available on Github at

This workshop application has four different microservices; however, we'll focus only on the three backend API services, fullstack-database, fullstack-tasks and fullstack-restapi services which can be found in the /backend-database, /backend-tasks, and /backend-restapi subdirectories respectively. Each of these directories contains a serverless. yml.

  • fullstack-database - This is a simple service which provisions an AWS DynamoDB Table. It defines two custom variables, database_submissions_region and database_submissions_name which are used to provision the DynamoDB Table. These variables are later referenced in the outputs section, which uses the outputs feature to published the value and make it available to other services for consumption.
  • fullstack-restapi - A REST API with a single Lambda function and an http event listener using the API Gateway. This service consumes the outputs from the fullstack-database service and uses them to set environment variables on the lambda function and to setup 1AM role for the Lambda function to access they DynamoDb Table. The lambda functions use the environment variables to access the DynamoDB Table.
  • fullstack-tasks - This service invokes a lambda function on a 5 minute interval. The lambda function uses the environment variable url and api key. Those environment variables are set using the $ {param} variable, which are obtained from the Serverless Framework Pro dashboard.

Four-step development workflow

The workflow is split into four steps of the deployment lifecycle. To describe this workflow we will use thefullstack-restapi services from the workshop fullstack app as an example.

In order to meet the requirements we've laid out for our team, this is the workflow we'll design to meet those requirements:


While a developer is working locally in their terminal and IDE, they will use local emulators when feasible. However, they should be encouraged to deploy to real cloud services often to get a more realistic view of their service.

Developers will deploy their application frequently to test out using real-world resources. They will do this before committing their code or making a pull request. They'll likely run integration tests on the deployed services before committing the code.


Once the developer is happy with their code they will commit it and open a pull request in Github. As a part of the review process, it is helpful for other developers to see the test results and get a live preview of the new feature. Therefore we'll setup Serverless CI/CD to automatically test and deploy pull requests.


Once the pull request is reviewed and approved, it’ll be merged into the master branch and the pull request branch will be deleted. Given that we have a traditional model of deploying to staging before production, we'll setup our Serverless CI/CD to automatically deploy changes from the master branch to our staging environment and stage.

This is a good time for product owners to review the changes before they are deployed to production. As described later, all changes should be feature flaggedwhen possible. Upon review, the product owner may provide additional feedback and requests. If the changes can be promoted to production safely behind afeature flag, they should, even if the feedback hasn’t been addressed. The feedback then can be added and go through the review cycle again. If the changescan't be deployed to production safely behind a feature flag, only then, should they be reverted.


Finally we want to take the service live by releasing it. We will promote our changes from staging to production by merging our changes from the master branch tothe prod branch. The prod branch will be configured to automatically deploy to the prod AWS account and stage. It might be tempting to do bulk deployments ona cadence that matches our sprints, e.g. every two weeks, but we encourage frequent promotions from staging to production. In conjunction to frequentpromotions from staging to production we also encourage using feature flagging, testing in production, then releasing by switching a feature flag.

This is a good time for product owners to review the changes before they are deployed to production. As described later, all changes should be feature flaggedwhen possible. Upon review, the product owner may provide additional feedback and requests. If the changes can be promoted to production safely behind afeature flag, they should, even if the feedback hasn’t been addressed. The feedback then can be added and go through the review cycle again. If the changescan't be deployed to production safely behind a feature flag, only then, should they be reverted.

Organizing your repo, apps and services

In a growing serverless team it can be difficult to figure out how your applications, services and repositories should be organized for collaboration and growth.

Here are a few guidelines you can follow to help organize your repos, apps and services. These are just rules-of-thumb, so you will need to evaluate your organization and consider the trade-offs. If needed, Serverless, Inc. provides architectural reviews, and we also have trusted partners who can help too.

  • Any shared resources which rarely change should be separated into its own Serverless Framework serverless.yml. For example, databases, DyanamoDB table, Cognito User Pools, are often shared by other services, but that are rarely modified and deployed. These should be deployed independently using their own serverless. yml file. In the workshop application, thefullstack-database service is an example of one such service.
  • Any service which can be deployed independently should be separated into its own Serverless Framework serverless.yml. Large serverless.yml have numerous limitations.
  • Serverless Framework depends on CloudFormation which has hard limits on the number of resources it can provision in a single deployment.
  • Some services also take longer to deploy than others, so larger deployment stacks will take longer to deploy, even if the change is small.
  • Also, serverless.yml files can get hard to read if there are too many plugins and resources.
  • Any service whichAs such, each service should be separated into its own serverless. yml if it can be deployed independently of other services. For example, in the workshopfull stack application, the fullstack-frontend service is its own serverless.yml because it can be developed and deployed independently of any otherservices. can be deployed independently should be separated into its own Serverless Framework serverless.yml. Large serverless.yml have numerous limitations.
  • Use one repo per service if the service can be developed and deployed independently of other services. If a developer or a team works on a service andthe changes they work are typically isolated from other changes, then it should be separated into its own repository to provide finer grained access controlsand an independent lifecycle.
  • Use one mono repo per application if features span multiple services. For example, you may introduce a new feature which requires updating the frontend and backend service. In this case, the two services are a part of one application. A single pull request for the feature may include updates to multipleservices and both must be deployed.
  • Use a mono repo with multiple services, if they share a common code base. For example, if you have a REST API service and an AppSync service both ofwhich use the same client libraries, they should be organized in the same repository with three different directories, one for the AppSyncservice(e.g. /appsync-service), one for the REST API Service (e.g. /restapi-service), and one for the shared libraries (e.g. /shared)

Implementing the recommended workflow

Setup deployment environments

Before we define and automate our workflow, we must first create all of our deployment environments and setup the corresponding service accounts for eachenvironment. As per our requirements, we want to isolate our staging and production environments from each other and from other environments.

For each environment we'll create a separate AWS Account so we can manage access to each independently and isolate the services from one another. Consultthe AWS Multiple Account Billing Strategy guide for more considerations in choosing the right environment isolation strategy for your organization.

We'll also likely use other 3rd party APIs, like Stripe for payments. In which case, we’ll want to make sure that we manage each of those accounts independently foreach environment.

While the deployment workflow has four stages, development, review, staging, and production, we only need three environments. Staging and production musthave their own environment, while we can share an environment during development and review. With this setup we'll end up with three environments:

  • development - used during development and review
  • staging - exclusively used during staging
  • prod - exclusively used for releasing to production

Create AWS account per environment

We will create one AWS account for each environment, so the AWS accounts will be development, staging, and prod. Each AWS Account requires billing information which can be cumbersome to manage. To make this a little easier AWS provides managed accounts in organizations so you can have multiple accounts in a single organization with a single payment account and bill.

Follow these steps provided by AWS for creating the three AWS Accounts for each environment.

Create other service accounts per environment

While AWS provides a broad range of services, it is also likely that your service depends on other third party services like Stripe for payments, SendGrid for emaildelivery, Sentry for exception tracking and much more.

Just the same way we isolate each of our deployment environments between development, staging and production, we should also isolate our dependencies foreach environment. For each of these third party services you should setup separate accounts or isolated environments, and generate independent set ofredentials (e.g. API Keys) for each.

Separate accounts for each environment may be cost prohibitive or cumbersome depending on the service. If separate accounts aren't feasible, consider using anaming scheme to the provisioned resources with a prefix for each environment (e.g. myservice-dev).

Use deployment profiles to manage environments

Deployment Profiles is a feature of Serverless Framework Pro which enables us to associate AWS accounts, safeguards and parameters with different environments. We will create three Deployment Profiles, one for each environment, and we'll use that to associate our AWS accounts and parameters with each.

Add AWS access role for each AWS account

Follow these instructions to link your AWS Account to the deployment profiles. Generate one AWS Access Role per AWS Account, and link it to the correspondingdeployment profile.

With AWS Access Roles the AWS Access Keys are generated by Serverless Framework on every command and the credentials expire after one hour. This enablesyou to deploy from the CLI without having to manage the AWS credentials and it enables Serverless CI/CD to deploy to your AWS account.

Add parameters for each 3rd-party account

The parameters documentation provides instructions for associating key/value pairs with a deployment profile. For each third party account generate thecredentials and save them in Parameters. If you are familiar with AWS SSM, this is a very similar process; however. Serverless parameters make it much easier tomanage and access those parameters.

In our workshop example we've defined two parameters, endpoint and endpoint_api_key, the former is a URL and the latter is an API Key which we shouldconsider to be sensitive. In a real-world case, you would have parameters to store parameters for your dependent services, like a API keys, endpoint addresses,database URIs, etc.



url: ${'{param:endpoint}'}

api_key: ${'{param:endpoint_api_key}’}










You’ll be able to use those keys in your serverless.yml using ${param:endpoint_api_key} and ${param:endpoint}.

When the service is deployed those parameters are resolved to the values from the deployment profile corresponding to the stage. For example, when you deployto staging the${param:endpoint_api_key} will resolve to 54325-staging and when you deploy to production it'll resolve to 23569-prod.

Add env parameter to deployment profiles

In each of the three deployment profiles, add a parameter named env and give it the corresponding names dev, staging, and prod. We will use this later whenaccessing outputs across different stages.

Add stages to applications using the deployment profiles

Now that we have the deployment profiles configured, we need to configure the applications and stages to use those profiles.

Go to the settings tab in your application details view and add three stages, dev, staging, and prod. In each, set the profile to the corresponding name, e.g. dev =>profile-dev. Adding this mapping will automatically load the AWS Access Role, Parameters and Safeguards from the deployment profile when you deploy.

Additionally, set the default profile to profile-dev. When you deploy to a stage other than dev, staging, prod, then the default profile will be used.

Using stages for developing changes

Serverless Framework stages enable us to namespace our deployments such that we can deploy a service side-by-side in the same AWS Account and region without conflicting the names. We'll use unique stage names during development and review to avoid conflicts, while still using the same AWS Account.

When working locally and developing locally, before committing our code, we'll deploy to a stage called developer-name, our username. Later, we'll use the branch name as the stage name when deploying a preview deployment. In both cases, they are deployed using the same deployment profile and therefore using the same AWS Access Role and parameters.

Sharing resources using outputs

When developing Serverless Framework applications, we often have a set of shared resources we use across other services. In our example workshop app we have a service called fullstack-database which provisions a DynamoDB Table and we have a fullstack-restapi service which requires access to the table created by fullstack-database. In this context, the fullstack-database is a shared resource used by other service, fullstack-restapi. In the real-world, there would be other services which depend on fulsltack-database.

This type ot architecture otten results in bundling all ot those services in a single mono service deployed using a single serverless.yml. This leads to some challenges like having to redeploy large Cloud Formation stacks, massive hard-to-read serverless.yml files, etc.

To address this issue we recommend using outputs to decouple each of these services into their own serverless. yml file. The shared service, fullstack-database, outputs key/values which then can be consumed by other services like fullstack-restapi. This enables us to develop and deploy each service independently. Now you can work on fullstack-restapi without having to touch or redeploy fullstack-database.

To get started we need to create one instance of our shared resources, fullstack-database, per account - dev, stage, prod. The dependent services, fullstack-restapi, will use the outputs fromfullstack-database in each account. During development and review the fullstack-restapi will be deployed using the same deployment profile and AWS account; however, the stage names will be different.

Publishing outputs from fullstack-database

First we need to setup fullstack-database to publish the outputs when it is deployed. This is a snippet from the serverless.yml which shows how fullstack-database defines the outputs database_submissions_name and database_submissions_region.

custom: # Centralize variables here

stage: ${‘{opt:stage, self:provider.stage}’}

database_submissions_name: submissions-${‘{self:custom.stage}’}

database_submissions_region: submissions-${‘{self:provider.region}’}


database_submissions_name: ${‘{self:custom.database_submissions_name}’}

database_submissions_region: ${‘{self:provider.database_submissions_region}’}

When fullstack-restapi is deployed, it identifies the values from fullstack-database, and sets them at deployment time. Upon deployment, you'll see these in theservice instance view in the dashboard.

Consuming outputs in fullstack-restapi

Now that fullstack-database is deployed, the outputs are published to the dashboard, and made available to all other services. In fullstack-restapi we can nowuse the ${output) variable to get the values of those outputs from fullstack-database and set them as environment variables on our lambda functions.

Once both services are deployed, this is how the values of the outputs are passed within the serverless. yml and across services.



database_submissions_name: ${'{output:fullstack-database.database_submissions_name}'}

database submissions region: ${'{output:fullstack-database.databasesubmissions region}'}

Consuming outputs in fullstack-restapi across stages

By default, when the ${output} variable is used, it gets the value from the dependent service in the same app, stage, and region as the current service. In our stageand prod environments this will work as-is; however, this default behavior will not work if the stages do not match.

When deploying fullstack-restapi in development we use our username as the stage name and when deploying in review we use the branch name as stagename. In both of these cases the stage offullstack-restapi (e.g. developer-name and new-feature-one) will not match the stage of fullstack-database (dev).

Luckily, there is a nice solution. Earlier we defined a parameter called env in our three different deployment profiles. This means we can use the ${param:env} variable to get the values dev, stage, and prod for each respective deployment profile

This is the original default syntax we use to reference the output database_submissions_name from fullstack-database.


We'll replace it the extended syntax which allows us to reference outputs from different applications, stages, and regions.


We will now use our ${param:env}, which we previously defined in our deployment profiles, to replace the value of the stage in the ${output) variable.


Now when we deploy, the value of ${param:env} is replaced with the value we defined in our deployment profile parameter.

When deploying from the CLI during development using a stage name like developer-name, the deployment profile associated with the default stage is used, and therefore the § {param: env} resolves to dev. Similarly, when deploying from CI/CD in review, then the branch name is used as the stage name, new-feature-one, which will also use the deployment profile associated with the default stage, and resolve $ {param:env} to dev.


Development: deploying from the CLI

As each developer works on a new feature locally, they should be encouraged to deploy their work frequently so they can test it with real cloud resources before making a commit. Once everything checks out, they can commit and make the pull request.

When deploying during development, we want to make sure that one developer doesn't overwrite the changes of another developer and their services should have access to other shared services.

serverless deploy --stage developer

One way to achieve this is to use the username as the stage name. This ensures that each developer deploys to a stage which doesn't conflict with anybody else’s stage.

The stage developer is not pre-configured in the stages section of the application, therefore the deployment will use the default deployment profile. The development deployment profile is used, therefore it is deployed to the development AWS account, and all the parameters associated with the development deployment profile are used.

Preview: automatic deployment & clean up

The second step on our workflow is to create a pull request of our feature branch against the master branch. We want to automatically run the unit tests anddeploy a preview of this service.

For each service in your application, go to the CI/CD Settings tab, and add this configuration to the Preview Deployments section.

Once this is configured and saved, we'll have an automated review workflow. Each pull request will then run unit tests in Serverless CI/CD and then it will bedeployed. Since we have the use branch name as stage option set, the service will be deployed to a stage using the branch name. For example, a feature branchfeature-X will be deployed using serverless deploy --stage feature-X.

The pull request status in Github will be updated with the deployment status and a link to the deployment details. Other developers can then use this informationto assist them in reviewing the pull request. If they are working on an integration, they can also use this information to identify the API endpoints and test themwith their services.

We also have the Destroy stage and resources when branch is deleted option turned on. Once the pull request is reviewed and approved, it'll be merged anddeleted. When the branch is deleted. Serverless CI/CD will automatically destroy the deployment. Self clean up!

Preview: automatic deployment & clean up

Setting up automatic deployments to staging and production is one of the easiest parts of the entire process.

In your application go to the CI/CD Settings tab. For each service add the following configuration to the Branch Deployments section and save your changes.




staging (profile: staging)


prod (profile: prod)

Every commit to master and prod will be deployed to the staging and prod stages with the staging and prod eployment profiles respectively after running the unittests.

Promotion & rollback with git

The entire CI/CD workflow is tied to our activity in Github, this includes the workflow for promoting changes from one stage to the next, and rolling back a change in case of failure.

Promoting form staging to production

If everything in staging looks ok and ready to promote to production, we'll use our git workflow to merge the desired commit from master to the prod branch. Since we already configured branch deployments for the prod branch, it will automatically run the tests and deploy to the prod stage.

Handling roll-backs

Just as before, we'll use the git workflow to roll back a change. If you need to roll back a service, this too should be tied to the git flow. The roll back to a previous commit, you should create a new PR that reverts the initial merge commit. This is conveniently handled with the revert button in the Github Desktop app.

Frequents releases with feature flags

In our workflow we have a traditional model in which we stage changes in the staging environment before we push changes to production. In such a case it may be tempting to stack up changes in the staging environment before pushing the changes to production. When we are ready to release a feature we deploy to production. However, this is not a recommended pattern, instead, we have few other recommendations:

  • Make smaller more frequent commits and deploy them often to staging
  • Promote the changes from staging to production often
  • Each developer should be responsible for promoting their feature from staging to production.

To achieve the above requirements, your team must decouple the release process from the deployment process. That is, your team should be able to deploy features often, but not necessarily make them available to your users. This can only be achieved using feature flagging, the practice of deploying to production but controlling the features behavior, like visibility, via a toggle.

New to serverless?

To get started, pop open your terminal & run: npm install serverless -g